BCF  an abbreviation for Bulked Continuous Filament yarn referring to synthetic fibers in a continuous form.  BCF yarn can be used in cut or loop pile construction.

Beck Dyed  a method of batch dyeing carpet.  A piece dye method.  The carpet is sewn into a loop, then hung on a large reel in the dye beck unit which moves the carpet through the dye.  This process is continued for a set time and achieves excellent color uniformity throughout the carpet.

Carpet Cushion
(also called padding) this is the layer of material that lies between the carpet and floor. It’s carpet cushion, not the carpet itself, that determines how a carpet feels beneath your feet and helps preserve the look while providing it with tougher protection against wear and tear.

Continuous Filament 
an unbroken strand of synthetic fiber, such as filament nylon or olefin.

separation of the secondary backing from the primary backing.

Dye Lot 
a quantity of carpet dyed at one time or made from yarn dyed at one time which is consistent in color throughout the fabric.  Dye lot size varies with dye method and the capability of dyeing equipment.Face Weight (also called yarn weight) is the total weight of the face (above and below the backing) yarns in the carpet.  The more ounces per square yard, the denser the pile and, potentially, the greater the wearability of the carpet.

Flame-Resistant  A material that burns slowly or is self-extinguishing after removal of an external source of ignition. A fabric or yarn can be flame resistant because of the innate properties of the fiber, the twist level of the yarn, the fabric construction, or the presence of flame retardants, or because of a combination of these factors.

Flame Resistance Tests (also known as Flammability tests) procedures that have been developed for assessing the flame resistance of carpets. The most commonly accepted are: Methenamine Pill Test - A carpet flammability test described in federal regulations CPSC 1-70 and CPSC 2-70. It measures the size of burn hole produced by an ignited methenamine tablet. Also used on the back of carpet. All carpet sold in the U.S. must pass the CPSC 1-70 flammability test. Radiant Panel Test - A test for the flammability of carpets or rugs in which the specimen is mounted on the floor of the test chamber and exposed to intense radiant heat from above. The rate of flame spread is assessed. (ASTM-E-648 Class I .45 watts/cm; Class II .22 watts/cm.) 

is the distance between the needles.  For example 1/8 gauge simply means there is 1/8” between each needle, or there are 8 needles per inch.

Pile Height
is the length (expressed in decimal or fractions of one inch) of the tuft from the primary backing to the tip. All other factors being equal, a carpet with a higher pile height will possess more yarn on the wearing surface and will essentially be more durable.

Polypropylene is a common synthetic material used in carpet manufacturing, sometimes referred to as olefin. Today it represents more than thirty-five percent of the total fibers used in the carpet industry. While polypropylene is not as resilient or resistant to abrasion as nylon, it is naturally stain and fade resistant. Polypropylene is most often used in loop pile carpet constructions.

Serging a method of finishing edges of area rugs by use of heavy, colored yarn sewn around the edges in a close, overcast stitch.

Solution Dyed  pigment is added to the molten polymer from which the filaments are made. The fiber is extruded in colored form, therefore, is an inherent part of the yarn itself.  Solution dyed yarn is highly resistant to color loss through fadingfrom sunlight, ozone, or harsh cleaning agents and bleach. The solutiondyeing process is, in addition, environmentally friendly and efficient,using little water or energy.

Space Dyed  a method of dyeing yarn.  Space dye refers to yarn with multiple colors printed on each strand. There are three basic processes used to create this effect: the warp system, the knit-de-knit process and the continuous dye process.

Stitch Rate (or stitches per inch) defines the number of times per inch a stitch occurs, just as gauge expresses the frequency of tufts across the width.  Stitch rate is the number of times an individual needle inserts a tuft into the primary backing as the primary backing moves one inch through the tufting machine.  This is sometimes abbreviated SPI.  Therefore 8 stitches per inch means that as the primary backing moved through the tufting machine, a single needle form 8 tufts or stitches.

Total Weight  weight (ounces) per square yard of the total carpet pile yarn, primary and secondary backings and coatings.